This paper presents a conceptual framework for analysing maternal and neonatal health factors in Australia, with a focus on the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). We explore the impact of various variables, including maternal age, smoking during pregnancy, gestational health, indigenous identity, remoteness, health facility accessibility, and income on mother and child health. Using secondary data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) and the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) and quantitative analysis techniques, our research highlights the need for targeted interventions to address maternal smoking and associated risk factors to enhance birth outcomes. Prioritising maternal and newborn health can improve outcomes both within Australia and globally. Notably, maternal smoking adversely affects perinatal mortality. Socio-demographic factors, such as age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, exert significant influence on outcomes. These insights offer guidance for policy enhancements in maternal and infant health in Australia, particularly within the ACT.