In an increasingly interconnected world, disease spread has increased, posing devastating consequences for public health. Technologies like wearable devices, social media, Big Data Analysis (BDA), and Artificial Intelligence (AI) offer promising solutions for aiding public health authorities in coping with Infectious Disease Outbreaks (IDOs). The study aims to introduce an integrated framework of AI and BDA with the public health system to detect IDOs and provide valuable insights for prevention, preparation, and response to outbreaks. A systematic review highlighted the improved outbreak control due to AI and BDA but emphasized the need for standardized methods and datasets to enhance AI model accuracy. The proposed framework seeks to overcome these challenges by increasing AI model precision. However, successful integration demands the public health sector to maintain AI development expertise, while healthcare workers must be well-informed about the expanding AI capabilities.