Privacy is an important aspect in modern information systems, receiving increasing attention from regulations, society, and scientific communities. As solution templates, privacy patterns can help developers meet the challenges created by privacy enhancing technologies, especially in cases where they lack privacy expertise. This work presents the current state of research in the emerging field of privacy patterns and related privacy topics around privacy by design. This contribution sheds light on the current advancements in privacy patterns, aiding future research. During a comprehensive and systematic literature review, 116 works were identified, analysed, and categorized. The results, presented through mapping, provide an overview of developments in the research field, and illustrate open research gaps. Our research categorizes identified privacy patterns and privacy strategies, covering also catalogues, languages, taxonomies as well as describes modelling and analysis frameworks. Our derived recommendations indicate additional research directions and highlight the need for further investigation in this area.