With companies and other organizations increasingly striving to become (more) data-driven, there has been growing research interest in the notion of a data-driven organization (DDO). In existing literature, however, it seems that different understandings of such an organization emerged. The study at hand sets forth to synthesize the fragmented body of research through a review of DDO understandings in the IS and related literatures. Based on the review results and drawing on the concept of the ‘knowing organization,’ our study identifies five core elements of a DDO (data sourcing & sensemaking, data capabilities, data-driven culture, data-driven decision-making, and data-driven value creation), which we integrate into a conceptual DDO framework. Most notably, the proposed framework suggests that an ideal-typical DDO combines an outside-in view with an inside-out view, thereby setting itself apart from its predecessor, the knowing organization. Theoretical and practical contributions as well as directions for future research are discussed.