Robotic process automation (RPA) is one of the most popular process automation approaches, and many organisations in various industries have jumped on the RPA bandwagon. Yet, despite the vast uptake, organisations face many challenges during RPA implementation, leading to a high project failure rate. A clear framework with critical success factors is missing that can guide organisations in their RPA implementation endeavours and avoid the common pitfalls. Building on process and socio-technical theory, we addressed this gap by conducting a case study of an RPA implementation in an Australasian university. We interviewed 13 employees from the university and the RPA vendor. Our findings show how the RPA project unfolded and the intertwining effects on the different components of the socio-technical system at project, work system and organisational levels. Further, we propose eight socio-technical design principles that can guide organisations during their RPA implementations and may lead to higher success rates.
Wallace, Erin; Waizenegger, Lena; and Doolin, Bill, "Opening the Black Box: Exploring the Socio-technical Dynamics and Key Principles of RPA Implementation Projects" (2021). ACIS 2021 Proceedings. 86.