Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) are major contributors to economies. SMEs depend on upon knowledge sharing and collaboration with business partners and suppliers, which makes the protection of their knowledge (known as knowledge protection or ‘KP’) critical. KP assists an organisation to sustain competitive advantage, as well as protect organisational knowledge from leakage outside the business. However, specific KP strategies are often not considered in SMEs as the tools required are often costly and difficult for SMEs to use. This study develops a theoretical framework to identify the factors that influence the use of KP strategies by SMEs and the roles that information and communications technologies play in these strategies. The study will examine the extent that SMEs adopt KP strategies; the strategies they use to protect their knowledge, the role of ICTs in KP strategies and, most importantly, the factors that influence the adoption of KP strategies.