The term “business transformation” is a buzzword, often used to signify fundamental changes undergone by organisations. Despite numerous works in enterprise transformation, IT-enabled business transformation and organizational transformation, there appears to be a lack of consensus on what actually constitutes a business transformation as opposed to other types of redesign or organisational improvement projects. Consequently, knowledge about which elements of a business system that are impacted by such an endeavour is largely inconsistent, and partially conflicting. We present a business transformation typology that considers 18 attributes pertaining to the transforming organisation and the transformation initiative. To explore our typology, we analysed 10 published case studies and classified them along two dimensions – one ranging from marginal to fundamental changes, and another on internal and external visibility. Our literature review reveals how the terminology has been misused, and we provide some directions to provide more clarity around transformation phenomena in IS research.