The model distinguishes between two kinds of decentralization: connected and unconnected. Our model predicts that unconnected (i.e., independent) decentralized decision makers should be common when communication costs are high. Then, as communication costs fall, centralized decision makers should become more desirable. Finally, as communication costs fall still further, connected decentralized decision makers should become desirable in many situations.
Wyner, George and Malone, Thomas, "Cowboys or Commanders: Does Information Technology Lead to Decentralization?" (1996). ICIS 1996 Proceedings. 4.