The process of learning through Game Based Learning (GBL) presents both positive aspects and challenges to be faced in order to support the achievement of learning goals and knowledge creation. This study aims to characterise game dynamics in the adoption of multi-player GBL. In particular, we examine the multi-player GBL dynamics may enhance collaborative learning through a relation of positive interdependence while at the same time maintaining a certain level of competition for ensuring multi-player GBL gameplay. The first section of the paper introduces collaborative GBL and describes the combination of intragroup dynamics of cooperation and positive interdependence and an intergroup dynamic of competition to maintain gameplay. The second part of the paper describes two multi-player GBL scenarios: the multi-player game with interpersonal competition and the multi-player game with intergroup competition. For each scenario a case analysis of existing collaborative games is provided, which may help instructional and game designers when defining the collaborative GBL dynamics. Technological requirements and best practices in the use of collaborative GBL are described in the last sections.
Romero, Margarida; Usart, Mireia; Ott, Michela; Earp, Jeffrey; de Freitas, Sara; and Arnab, Sylvester, "LEARNING THROUGH PLAYING FOR OR AGAINST EACH OTHER? PROMOTING COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN DIGITAL GAME BASED LEARNING" (2012). ECIS 2012 Proceedings. 93.