One of the applications used in the management of electronic health records are smart health care cards (smart cards). This paper seeks to identify if smart cards would be applicable as part of the implementation of ehealth in Australia. The paper reviews the research around the use of smart cards and a case study on the implementation in Slovenia. Based on an extensive literature review and a case study from Slovenia it would seem the implementation of smart cards has met with varied success. While the benefits cited include; management of patient data, insurance refunds, patient data security and tracking of prescriptions. The drawbacks include cost, poor data quality, lack of interoperability, a lack of scalability and patient data security concerns that have seen the suspension of the use of smart health cards in some countries. In Australia’s multi layered health system the drawbacks cited raises questions as to the suitability of smart cards in Australia.