Normalization attempts in Open and Distance Learning are only understandable in reference to the three theoretical views of learning: Learning is a transmission, an exchange and a construction process. Then we introduce at the technical level the content approach (LOM), the activity approach (IMS-LD) and the tools interfaces approach (CSCL), and they prove the need of an intermediate didactical level for pedagogical models specification.
"Les trois visions de la formation ouverte et leurs propositions de normes : standardiser les contenus, les activités ou les interfaces ?,"
Systèmes d'Information et Management: Vol. 9:
4, Article 2.
Available at: https://aisel.aisnet.org/sim/vol9/iss4/2