In practical terms, conceptual modeling is at the core of systems analysis and design. The plurality of modeling methods available has however been regarded as detrimental, and as a strong indication that a common view or theoretical grounding of modeling is wanting. This theoretical foundation must universally address all potential matters to be represented in a model, which consequently suggested ontology as the point of departure for theory development. The Bunge–Wand–Weber (BWW) ontology has become a widely accepted modeling theory. Its application has simultaneously led to the recognition that, although suitable as a meta-model, the BWW ontology needs to be enhanced regarding its expressiveness in empirical domains. In this paper, a first step in this direction has been made by revisiting BUNGE’s ontology, and by proposing the integration of a “hierarchy of systems” in the BWW ontology for accommodating domain specific conceptualizations.
Rosemann, Michael and Wyssusek, Boris, "Enhancing the Expressiveness of the Bunge-Wand-Weber Ontology" (2005). AMCIS 2005 Proceedings. 438.