Critical success factor of e-commerce (EC) adoption is an important issue for developing countries. This research discusses the assessment indicators and impact factors for EC success. Combining literature review and expert investigation, four assessment indicators and ten impact factors are identified to be important for Chinese publishing companies. To test the relationship between the assessment indicators and the impact factors, data are collected form the publishing industry in China. Data analysis result shows that factors such as “establish EC strategy fitted in with company’s characteristic”, “share information between systems”, and “manage customer relationship” are critical factors for Chinese publishing companies. This research is not only valuable for EC theory, but also important for EC practice. The findings are useful to guide the EC initiatives in China.