Systèmes d'Information et Management


n a spirit of open innovation, organisations mobilise the crowd in order to create value beyond their borders. Organisations therefore want to benefit from the crowd’s resources and skills: “grey matter”, creativity, money... All literature on this topic is relatively recent, so it might be helpful to ask this basic question: how can crowd participation to a crowd- sourcing activity be organised? In order to answer this question, we have chosen an ex- ploratory qualitative research method. Through an abductive approach, our research pre- sents an original taxonomy of crowdsourcing which we will call “the 4 Cs of crowdsourcing”: cumulative crowdsourcing, collaborative crowdsourcing, competitive crowdsourcing and coopetitive crowdsourcing.