The studied conducted by the cluster of NJIT (e.g., Dufner et al. 1995; Fjermestad et al. 1995; Kim, Hiltz and Turoff 1998; Ocker and Fjermestad 1998; Ocker et al. 1995 & 1996 & 1997) focused more on group outcomes, rather than group development. Impacts of different communication modes (FtF, FtF GSS, distributed GSS, asynchronous GSS, and combined communication) and structures/tools of GSS on group outcomes were the main issues examined in their research. They found out that using GSS tools improved group outcomes (Dufner et al. 1995), groups with leadership performed better than those without leadership (Kim, Hiltz and Turoff 1998), and asynchronous GSS groups performed better than FtF groups in creativity (Ocker and Fjermestad 1998; Ocker et al. 1995 & 1996). Their findings suggest that to improve group performance, suitable GSS tools/structures should be used and further, more tools/structures should constructed and embedded into GSS.
Huang, W. and Chung, S. L., "Using an Internet-based GSS to Support Virtual Teams: An Empirical Investigation" (2000). AMCIS 2000 Proceedings. 395.