E-learning has grown to such an extent that paper-based testing is being replaced by computer-based testing also known as e-exams. Because these e-exams can be delivered outside of the traditional proctored environment, additional authentication measures must be employed in order to offer similar authentication assurance as found in proctored, Paper-Based Testing (PBT). In this study, we extended the body of knowledge in e-learning research by comparing e-exam scores and durations of three separate groups of e-exam takers using different authentication methods: Online Using Username/Password (OLUP), In-Testing Proctored Center (ITPC), and Online Proctored with Multibiometrics (OPMB). The aim was to better understand the role as well as the possible effect of continuous and dynamic multibiometric authentication on professional certification e-exam scores and durations. Our results indicated that group affiliation, i.e. type of authentication methods, had no significant effect on differences among e-exam scores and durations. While there was a clear path of increased mean e-exam score as authentication method was relaxed, it was evident from the analysis that these were not statistically significant,probably due to the limited sample size. Age was found to have a significant effect on e-exam scores where younger participants were found to have higher e-exam scores and lower e-exam durations than older participants. Gender was not found to have a significant effect on e-exam scores nor durations. This study’s results can help organizations better understand the role, possible effect, and potential application of continuous and dynamic multibiometric authentication as a justifiable approach when compared with the more common authentication approach ofUser Identifier (UID) and password, both in professional certification e-exams as well as in an online environment.
Smiley, Garrett; Levy, Yair Ph.D.; Clarke, Nathan; and Ackerman, Eric, "Investigating the Role of Multibiometric Authentication in Professional Certification E-exams" (2013). WISP 2012 Proceedings. 39.