We examine the current literature on mobile health (m-Health) based disease surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We aim to uncover the philosophical assumptions scholars use to drive research studies in the field. We considered this pertinent because philosophical assumptions play significant roles in how Information Systems (IS) and their users are conceptualised. We sought to address the following broad review question using a systematic literature review approach: what are the philosophical assumptions that drive research in m-Health-based disease surveillance and the impact on methodological assumptions and theoretical frameworks adopted by scholars? Our findings reveal that positivist and pragmatist traditions dominate the research area. However, given the complex contextual conditions in SSA, alternative philosophical assumptions in the post-positivist philosophy, particularly interpretivism, could enhance our understanding of phenomena surrounding m-Health-based disease surveillance. Therefore, we seek to stimulate the IS community's interest in investigating m-Health-based disease surveillance from interpretivist perspectives to offer more meaningful contributions in theorising the phenomenon.