Health Information Systems (HIS) present many opportunities to address health challenges in developing countries such as Nigeria. However, in order to leverage the potential of HIS, the opportunities and challenges facing implementation must be explored and understood. This paper conducts an archival analysis of the existing literature on HIS in Nigeria published in premier Information Systems (IS) and Health Informatics outlets; in an effort to provide a comprehensive picture of existing literature by identifying trends, discussing findings, and proposing new research opportunities. The 18 articles meeting the inclusion criteria are reviewed. Current trends are discussed using the framework developed by McLeon et al. (2013) for understanding the factors influencing health IS implementation in developing countries. At present, several challenges face IS implementation in Nigeria such as the lack of policy guidance, resistance among end users, and cultural barriers. In addition, existing studies are limited in scope, theory, and level of analysis applied. The paper contributes to the literature by investigating the status quo, presenting new areas ripe for future investigation including the organisational, financial, and technological issues at play, and illuminating important issues which can guide pilot testing and implementation of new health IS initiatives in Nigeria.