The primary purpose of this paper is to help a better understanding on factors affecting active participation in business-to-business online business communities (B2B OBCs). Toward this goal, this study proposed a conceptual framework based on the Social Exchange Theory (SET), Uses and Gratification theory (U&G), and the Information Systems Success Model (ISSM). The framework was further explored and tested using semi structured interview with twelve members of B2B OBCs. The finding suggests that reciprocity, trust, reputation/status, functional factors, system quality, information quality and service quality may affect the level of B2B OBCs’ participation. However, the framework was only tested with a small number of participants through interviews and as such the results are not generalisable to the wider business population. Therefore a future empirically study will be conducted out in order to thoroughly test the framework.