The study examines an alternative conceptualization of user acceptance, where acceptance is a function of two modes of thinking: one that is fast, intuitive, and automatic (known as System 1), and one that is slow, more deliberate, and voluntary (known as System 2). Such a conceptualization can accommodate cases of affect substitution, where users rely on System 1 only, without activating System 2. An experiment is conducted (N = 250) in which users are primed for System 1 or System 2. The headline contribution is that, in the context of an unattractive but potentially useful software application, users primed for System 1 show weaker intentions to download the application than those who are primed for System 2 (mean score 5.25 versus 6.30, on a scale of 1 to 7). The difficulty of reconciling this result with traditional frameworks illustrates the relevance of the dual processing model.
van der Heijden, Hans, "Priming System 1 Influences User Acceptance" (2013). SIGHCI 2013 Proceedings. 25.