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Design Patterns, Bad Smells


A design pattern is a general reusable solution to a recurring problem in software design. Bad smells are symptoms that may indicate something wrong in the system design or code. Therefore, design patterns and bad smells represent antagonistic structures. They are subject of recurring research and typically appear in software systems. Although design patterns represent good design, their use is often inadequate because their implementation is not always trivial or they may be unnecessarily employed. The inadequate use of design patterns may lead to a bad smell. Therefore, this paper performs an exploratory study in order to identify instances of co-occurrences of design patterns and bad smells. This study is performed over five systems and discovers some co-occurrences between design patterns and bad smells. For instance, we observed the co-occurrences of Command with God Class and Template Method with Duplicated Code. The results of this study make it possible to understand in which situations design patterns are misused or overused and establish guidelines for their better use.