User participation and involvement (UPI) are complex concepts with many factors. This complexity stems from the different ways in how users are defined, how they participate and are involved, from the characteristics of the system, and the various phases within systems development. Managing UPI is important to change agents, i.e., managers, information technology experts, and consultants because they are the ones who are tasked with choosing the best participants at the right time to contribute to the systems development process to ensure a successful system. By reviewing relevant literature, this paper examines when participants should not participate in specific phases of systems development so as to not impede success or contribute to the failure of the systems development project.
Stanley-Brown, Josephine and Weistroffer, Heinz, "Relevant Participants' Participation in Systems Development: When is Particitipation Irrelevant?" (2019). SAIS 2019 Proceedings. 19.