This paper proposes three high-level project meta-phases to enhance the understanding of how projects are created and their long-term impacts after completion. It extends the traditional view of the projects to include activities which occur before the initiation of the project and after the closeout phase. These meta-phases are project conception, project execution, and deliverable use. These meta-phases are described and explained in terms of their usefulness for project management research.
Presley, Steven S.; Landry, Jeffrey P.; and Shropshire, Jordan, "Three Meta-Phases of a Project" (2018). SAIS 2018 Proceedings. 5.