An empirical analysis was conducted to compare Face-to-Face learning to three formats of online learning: hybrid, asynchronous, and synchronous. Student satisfaction was used as a surrogate to measure success in learning environments. Over 200 students from eight disciplines took part in a university wide study. The study found no significant difference in student satisfaction among the four learning environments. Directions for future research were proposed.
Murray, Meg and Guimaraes, Mario, "Workshop: Supporting the Teaching of Database Concepts with Animation Courseware" (2008). SAIS 2008 Proceedings. 10.