This study builds on organizational theories and the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) to investigate individual responses to introduction of information systems in healthcare organizations. We argue that usage has been often times conceptualized too narrowly in IS research as adoption or rejection of IS. We aim to open up the concept of use and uncover different types of adoption responses when it comes to introduction of new information systems in organizations. We conceptualize use based on organizational theories (Kelman, 1957; Kostova, 1999; Kostova & Roth, 2002) as being comprised of two elements: implementation and internalization. Variations in the levels of these two components lead to different usage patterns that we call “shallow” use and “deep” level use. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Ilie, Virginia, "Opening Up the Adoption Shell. “Shallow” and “Deep Level” Usage Patterns in Healthcare Organizations " (2005). SAIS 2005 Proceedings. 48.