Business process standardization practice was studied in the context of integration and adaptation. 31 Japanese and non-Japanese MNE were interviewed to find a practice of standardizing business process globally. 4 distinctive types of standardization were identified. Two top down approaches were consistent with organizational characteristics such as clear job specification, in contrasting on those using Kaizen approaches, with general characteristic employment as membership. Although the top-down approach is consistent with integration strategy, its multi-layer implementation preserves the room for flexible replication to balance adaptation needed.
Sendo, Takashi, "Business Process Standardization of Multinational Enterprises: Two Distinctive Organizational Models" (2018). PACIS 2018 Proceedings. 42.