Enterprise social networking (ESN) is widely used to facilitate employees’ communication and collaboration in today’s competitive business environment. However, the underlying mechanism through which ESN improves team performance is not clear. To address this gap, we propose that the ESN use may affect the building of transactive memory systems (TMS), which in turn influence team performance. Specifically, we differentiate task-oriented and relationship-oriented ESN use and try to identify their differential influence on TMS. We plan to conduct this study in China via a survey. This study will help link the research area of ESN to TMS, which will extend our understanding about the role of ESN.