Transparency has been attracting attentions of public management especially in land administration. Land transaction is function of land administration and highly demands transparency as much as other types of transaction. On the other hand, technological world has been supporting a lot for enhancing transparency in administrative field. One of them is Workflow Management System (WfMS) which has been supporting for transaction process not only for private sector but also for public sector. This study aims to develop high level of abstract architecture of WfMS – Reference Architecture (RA) for enhancing transparency in land transaction process.

In land administration, there are functional and structural requirements for transparency. On the other hand, transaction process has four properties which are atomicity, isolation, consistency, durability (ACID). All of these requirements are believed to bring transparency for land transaction but which ones are needed to impose in reference architecture for WfMS. They were defined by theory and practice in Netherlands case dealing about WfMS and transparency. The paper found that, besides ACID in theory and practice, there should be incorporation of functional and structural requirements for designing RA.

The study based on the case of Netherlands and qualitative method to analyze and conclude theoretical and practical lessons for design stage; also test the design whether it can enhance transparency in land transaction. Several design elements pointed out from the lessons were embraced in the designed reference architecture. The design has three layers: client, server and database. For higher level of detail, architecture was developed from the reference architecture with organizational, computational, engineering and information viewpoints. Each of components supposes to show several transparency criteria. The architecture was implemented in WfMS based Geo-information system (GIS) software environment. Based on transparency criteria, implementation and verification was conducted and proved that reference architecture can enhance transparency but depend on implementation architecture and chosen software.