Utilizing the Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) theory and the literature on citizen engagement (or participation), we formulated a multiple-mediation model, examining (1) the contextual antecedents of e-participation and e-government development; and (2) the mediating role of e-participation (in form of e-information sharing, e-consultation, and e-decision-making) on the relationships between the TOE contextual factors and e-government development. Specifically, we hypothesized that information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure, human capital and governance in a country have both direct and indirect relationships with its e-government development through the mediating roles of e-participation. Based on archival data from 170 countries, our results showed that ICT infrastructure, human capital and e-participation had a direct relationship with e-government development. Of the three dimensions of e-participation, e-information sharing and e-decision-making were positively associated with e-government development, and e-consultation was negatively related. Further, all three dimensions of e-participation partially mediated the influence of ICT infrastructure and human capital on e-government development. Results also indicated that governance in a country did not significantly contribute to its e-government development, and their relationship was not mediated by e-participation. Implications of our findings are discussed.