For e-government to succeed, government agencies must manage their records and archives of which the sheer volume and diversity necessitate the use of electronic record management systems (ERMS). Using an established business–technology alignment model, we analyze an agency’s strategic alignment choice and examine the outcomes and agency performance associated with that alignment. The specific research questions addressed in the study are as follows: (1) Do strategic alignment choices vary among agencies that differ in purpose or position within the overall government hierarchy? (2) Do agencies’ alignment choices lead to different outcomes? and (3) Does performance in implementing, operating, and using ERMS vary among agencies that follow different alignment choices? We conducted a large-scale survey study of 3,319 government agencies in Taiwan. Our data support the propositions tested. Based on the findings, we discuss their implications for digital government research and practice.