In our progressively more interconnected world, some people may be displaced from their traditional occupations by intelligent agents and smart machines. At the same time there may be a shortage of people skilled in the development of these technologies, and societal changes may see more people undertaking a succession of short-term project assignments. This is leading to studies of future competency requirements (called Work 4.0 in Europe) and the evolution of agile human resources management systems. A focus on mapping accessible individual competence sets is emerging, facilitated by the identification of associated information systems. In this paper we explore challenges in the identification of current and future competency requirements and in competency mapping to facilitate agile operations. We also introduce the concept of competency relationship mapping.