In this article, we define five purposes of a data model and describe a typical data modeling problem. We then evaluate the Entity-Relationship and Unified Modeling Language data models against those five purposes in the context of the example problem. We find severe limitations with both data models. We conclude the article with a survey of the characteristics needed for a new data model.
Kroenke, David M. and Gray, C. Donald
"Toward a Next Generation Data Modeling Facility: Neither the Entity-Relationship Model nor UML Meet the Need,"
Journal of Information Systems Education: Vol. 17
Available at: https://aisel.aisnet.org/jise/vol17/iss1/6