Post analyses of major extreme events reveal that information sharing is critical for an effective emergency response. The lack of consistent data standards in the current emergency management practice however serves only to hinder efficient critical information flow among the incident responders. In this paper, we adopt a theory driven approach to develop a XML-based data model that prescribes a comprehensive set of data standards for fire related extreme events to better address the challenges of information interoperability. The data model development is guided by third generation Activity Theory and semiotics theories for requirement analyses. The model validation is achieved using a RFC-like process typical in standards development. This paper applies the standards to the real case of a fire incident scenario. Further, it complies with the national leading initiatives in emergency standards (National Information Exchange Model).