We investigated three types of volitional control mechanisms that may impact people’s knowledge management (KM) practices. Our results show that, when employing KM, people do not always perform in a manner consis- tent with their beliefs concerning attitudes and intentions. This cognition-behavior inconsistency can be ex- plained by volitional control mechanisms. Specifically, both perceived self-efficacy (Bandura 1997) and action control (Kuhl and Bechmänn 1985) play a role in motivating individuals to share and use knowledge, while perceived behavioral control does not. In addition, action/state orientation moderates a person’s enactment of subjective norm and self-efficacy beliefs into intentions just as it moderates enactment of perceived behavioral control belief into behaviors. These results have important theoretical and managerial implication.