This paper analyzes the nature of e-commerce policy actions in three European countries. Compiling the European Union and national policy instruments into four groups (regulation and legislation, knowledge diffusion, economic incentives, and e-government), France is viewed as a front-runner with early Minitel applications but losing steam during the e-commerce rush. Germany is the European e-commerce powerhouse with a late entry as an adopter. Denmark is an example of the early adopting Nordic countries. The palette of European e-policy topics includes industry networks, efficiency of existing business operations, and digital integration among companies, citizens, government, and peer-to-peer use following a demand-driven roadmap to e-commerce diffusion.
Andersen, Kim-Viborg; Beck, Roman; Wigand, Rolf; Brousseau, Eric; and Gunge, Eske, "Agile Government and Global Market-Driven E-Commerce: The Cases of Denmark, France, and Germany" (2003). ICIS 2003 Proceedings. 15.