The argument presented in this article is that the premises governing human-technology interaction partly derive from the distinctive ways by which each technology defines a domain of reference, and organizes and codifies knowledge and experience within it. While social in its origins and its implications, technology constitutes a distinct realm of human experience that is not reducible to social or institutional relations. Drawing on Goodmanís (1976, 1978) cognitive philosophy the article proposes a scheme for analyzing the very architecture of items and relations underlying the constitution of cognition-based artifacts. Such an analysis is used as a basis for inferring the malleability and negotiability of technologies and the forms by which they admit human involvement and participation.
Kallinikos, Jannis, "Reopening the Black Box of Technology Artifacts and Human Agency" (2002). ICIS 2002 Proceedings. 26.