The purpose of this paper is to present and empirically test a typology of ITs and direct labor practices that provide insight into how each individually affects manufacturing performance, and how the two interact in a highly dynamic setting. This addresses the concern of Orlikowski and Iacono (2001, pg. 121) that ìthe field of ISÖhas not deeply engaged the IT artifact [and that it continues] to be under theorized,î and their call for theoretical investigation of ìhow people engage with various technological artifacts in the course of working, learning, communicating, shopping, or entertaining themselvesî (pg. 132). The former is particularly true of research investigating ITís performance impacts, where the vast majority of studies have treated the internal operation of the firm as a black box.