Corresponding Author

Hamed Nayernia, Newcastle University Business School, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom,

Document Type



The increasing popularity of digitisation practices and methods by scholars and practitioners alike has been paving the way for industrial transformation. Industry 4.0 has become an accepted trend across various industries, yet despite the increasing number of articles on this topic the complexities of implementation at the firm level remains largely vague and undefined. Therefore, the research presents a review of the social, operational and strategic aspects following the full-text mining of 116 selected articles. The study reveals that digital transformation requires stakeholders and investors to consider implementation through a multi-level and multidisciplinary lens. On this basis the study identifies the social, operational and strategic gaps within the literature and provides recommendations for future studies on implementation.