Corresponding Author

Ting Xu

Document Type



Recently, gamification obtains increasingly attention in marketing. Based on the S-O-R model, this research applied gamification to marketing and examined two important gamification elements (external reward and interactive competition) on evaluation of marketing activity. It was found that external reward and interactive competition have positive impacts on evaluation of marketing activity, and perceived enjoyment and immersion mediate the effects of external reward and interactive competition on such evaluation. This research contributes to gamification literature by examining the impact of different gamification elements (external reward vs interactive competition) on the evaluation of marketing activity. Further, this study contributes to marketing literature by exploring the impact of the perceived enjoyment and immersion. This research also provides insights for firms and game administrators on how to encourage customers to generate purchase intention and purchase behavior by designing appropriate gamification elements.