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This study examines direct effects of IT use, the level of firms’ IT human capital and the level of use of IT outsourcing based on vendor support, as well as their joint effect on the capability of firms to sense and respond to IT changes, known as technological opportunism. Using data from the U.S. and Spain, the results suggest that an intense use of IT and a high level of firm’s IT human capital are the main sources for developing technological opportunism. The findings also show the existence of complementarities between these resources for U.S. firms. For Spanish firms, IT vendor support and IT human capital are complementary resources, but IT vendor support should be applied in functional and low knowledge intensive activities. Therefore, if the firm relies on IT to develop technological capabilities, these activities should not be carried out by external firms.

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