Document Type



E-Collaboration has been attracting more and more attention and interest of academic researchers and industry practitioners. However, the paradigm of e-Collaboration has yet to be established. Various researches often incline to label subjective research studies relate to inter-organization interaction or integration with the hot title. To clarify terminology used and to remove ambiguity on e-Collaboration, the paper aims to provide a cohesive framework of e-Collaboration from the perspective of inter-organizational integration. The framework highlights the core feature of e-Collaboration—joint intellectual efforts, which has been neglected by existing studies. Moreover, a mathematical modeling approach is further used to illustrate the differences among each levels of integration in a two-party context. The descriptive and modeling approaches both attempt to establish a paradigm for e-Collaboration. And the future research directions will be indicated based on the paradigm.