“Involve target groups in project design and monitoring”. This is the first of five points of lesson-learned from a detailed review commissioned by InfoDev of a cross-section of 17 of the more than 100 ICT4-for-Development (ICT4D) pilot projects it has funded in the past several years in preparation for the World Summit on Information Society (WSIS) in Geneva-2003 (InfoDev, 2003). Yet, since the publication of this report, there are still conflicting arguments among ICT4D practicioners and researchers regarding the positive impact of user participation on the success of development of ICT4D project. This paper reviews the existing ICT4D studies that discuss this issue and offer suggestions for the future research.