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Technological innovations like AI-based diagnosis chatbots will pave the way for a fundamental change in providing healthcare. While previous research mostly highlights the importance of trust in adopting new technologies, there is a lack of research on distrust. We argue that the avoidance of distrust towards novel technologies is crucial since negative emotions during initial interactions may harm subsequent trust-building processes. Therefore, our research aims to contribute to better understand the differences of trust and distrust towards diagnosis chatbots. To gain first deep insights into this new research area, we conducted a pilot usability study applying an innovative qualitative approach. First findings indicate that humans experience affect-based distrust and cognition-based trust towards diagnosis chatbots, while the opposite is true for doctor-patient-trust. We further argue that distrust goes beyond the absence of trust as it is triggered actively by negative emotions that may inhibit the adoption of new technologies.



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