Although there are many studies with a focus on ERP implementation in public administration, it is evident a lack of proven scientific theories and experiences in this context. However, an undeniable feature of this industry is that it is more complex, so it is important to identify factors that determine the success of the ERP implementation in this sector in order to achieve better results of the information systems projects. Thus, the objective of this research is to identify the critical factors for this kind of project, combining literature results and collected real data from the perspective of sponsors, leaders, business analysts, and users. For this, it was carried out an ad-hoc literature review, and an exploratory case study at a public institution of higher education sector that was implementing an ERP system. Interviews, observations, and documentary analysis were carried out to collect and evaluate the data. Thus, the results found allowed us to identify which critical success factors influence, as facilitators or barriers, in the implementation of ERP systems in public sector, making possible the mitigation of potential adverse impacts.