Existing approaches for business process improvement often lack systematic guidelines to transform a business process into an enhanced state, which we refer to as the “act of improvement”. To close this gap, a pattern-based approach has been designed and developed in previous works. In this paper, the usefulness of “Business Process Improvement Patterns” (BPI-Patterns) as a means of improving business processes is analyzed. For this purpose, a simulation experiment is performed in which several BPI-Patterns are applied to evaluate whether their anticipated effects can be confirmed for real-life business processes. From the analysis of the simulation results, i.e. how the application of BPI-Patterns affects the business processes, we investigate enabling as well as hindering factors that influence the implementation of BPI-Patterns. These factors may serve as a means to further specify instances of BPI-Patterns and also contribute to the overall evaluation of the BPI-Pattern approach.