Over the last few years, organizations have increasingly been paying attention to the concept of enterprise content management (ECM), which refers to the strategies, methods, and technologies required for capturing, storing, retrieving, delivering, and retaining all types of digital information across the organization. While the market for ECM software is rapidly growing, information systems (IS) research has not paid much attention to the topic. At the same time, the boundaries between the emergent concept of ECM and the rather well-established management approach of business process management (BPM) are becoming increasingly blurred in practice. From an academic point of view, however, the role that content plays in the management of business processes, and vice versa, remains largely unexplored. In order to prepare the ground for IS researchers to theorize about the relationships between the two concepts this paper identifies contemporary challenges that drive ECM implementation from a process point of view. The findings are grounded in the analysis of qualitative data from two case studies and are categorized based on a content lifecycle model.