We investigate the importance of legitimation-seeking in IS development by describing two related projects in the Central Hospital, Bangkok. In the second project, begun immediately after the first, there were major improvements in legitimation-seeking activities and the implemented IS was a success, providing strong evidence that stakeholders perceived a direct link between legitimation failure and project failure. Our results provide insights into legitimation-seeking failure and the multiple legitimation strategies used to achieve pragmatic, moral and cognitive types of legitimacy. We generalize our results to an integrated framework of the legitimation process as well as a preliminary model of IS legitimation-seeking failure involving the mum and deaf effects. We suggest that this framework may be generalized to settings which share similar empirical circumstances.