In the United States, spam, unsolicited bulk or commercial e-mail, is considered to be a significant problem for both consumers and Internet Service Providers. It is currently attracting a patchwork of state level legislative actions as well as proposed federal legislative initiatives. While spam engenders numerous policy concerns, two issues, the jurisdictional domain and the transfer of costs, appear to be unique to spam.
Sipior, Janice C.; Ward, Burke T.; and Bonner, P. Gregory, "The United States Responds to Spain" (2000). ECIS 2000 Proceedings. 92.