This paper discusses nature of action research, and its particular strengths in disciplines such as information systems (IS). However concerns are raised about the quality and rigour of the conduct and reporting of action research studies. Criteria for quality and rigour of qualitative research generally, and for action research in particular, are discussed and analysed. These then form the basis of a framework put forward to guide potential action researchers through issues such as the design, conduct, and presentation of their research, with the aim of improving relevance and rigour in action research studies.