The use of digital channels has been promoted by governments as a way of improving services and reducing costs. This article aims to discuss how new forms of exclusion can be created by policies based on a digital-by-default orientation. To this end, more than 1.2 million service records are analyzed, as well as being considered socioeconomic indicators and spatial factors of the city of São Paulo. Results show that there is a statistically significant correlation between income and digital channels usage, as well as between digital channels usage and the requested service attendance time. It is also verified that the districts of the central region of the city tend to have high income, high rates of human development and high digital channels usage, while the periphery’s districts tend to have low income, lower rates of human development and high traditional channels usage. It is concluded that, by prioritizing digital service channels, new forms of social exclusion are being created and that a portion of the population may be "forgotten" by the government.
Macaya, Javiera Fernanda Medina; Alves, Andre F.; Porto de Albuquerque, João; and Cunha, Maria, "Digital-by-Default: Exclusion through Digital Public Service Channels" (2020). CONF-IRM 2020 Proceedings. 19.